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Updated on February 29, 2020

Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in men.  It is located below the bladder and produces fluid which mixes with sperm produced in the testicle to make semen during ejaculation.  Although prostate cancer grows slowly initially, it may spread to the bone and the rest of the body if left untreated.

Risk factors for Prostate Cancer

Age (over the age of 55 years), obesity, smoking and family history of prostate cancer increases your risk of prostate cancer.

Signs & Symptoms of Prostate Cancer

Symptoms of Prostate Cancer

  • Difficulty and increase frequency of passing urine (need to get up at night)
  • Decreased flow of urine and taking a long time to empty bladder
  • Blood in the semen
  • Discomfort or pain around the pelvic area
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Loss or appetite and loss of weight
  • Bone pain when the cancer has spread to the bone

Diagnostic Tests

  • Examination of the prostate by your doctor
  • Blood tests (to detect your blood, liver and kidney profile and prostate tumour marker known as Prostate Specific Antigen or PSA)
  • Prostate tissue biopsy
  • CT or MRI or PET scan (to check for cancer spread)

Stages of Prostate Cancer

Staging of the cancer is one of the most important factors in deciding how to treat the cancer and in determining how successful the treatment might be.  The TNO staging depends on T (size of tumour), N (if lymph nodes are involved) and M (if there is spread to rest of the body known as metastasis)

  • T1 (the cancer is within the prostate but not large enough to be felt)
  • T2 (the cancer is within the prostate and large enough to be felt)
  • T3 (the cancer may have broken outside the capsule of the prostate)
  • T4 (the cancer has spread outside the prostate)
  • N0 (no lymph node involved)
  • N1 (the cancer has spread to more than 1 lymph node)
  • M0 (no metastasis)
  • M1 (the cancer has spread or metastasis to rest of the body)

Treatment Options for Prostate Cancer

Treatment depends on your age and health status as well as the tumour stage and grade

  • Surgery to remove the prostate cancer using Open, Laparoscopic or Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy. 
  • Adjuvant treatment using Chemotherapy and/or Radiotherapy may be required
  • Hormonal therapy
  • Immunotherapy

Issues after Treatment

You may experience some or all of the following

  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Urinary incontinence (inability to control your urine)
  • Overactive bladder (sudden desire to go to urinate)

Surveillance after Treatment

You are encourage to have regular follow-up visits with your doctor.  It is important to have the following tests regularly (every 4-6 months) to detect any recurrences early

  • Examination of the prostate by your doctor
  • Blood tests (to detect your blood, liver and kidney profile and PSA)

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Disclaimer. TELEME blog posts contains general information about health conditions and treatments. It is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. The information is not advice and should not be treated as such. 

If you think you may be suffering from any medical condition, you should seek immediate medical attention from your doctor or other professional healthcare providers. You should never delay seeking medical advice, disregard medical advice, or discontinue medical treatment because of information on this website.

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