Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer is a relatively rare cancer which affects young and middle aged men. It accounts for around 1% of all cancers in men.  It is more common is people with undescended testicle, abnormal testicular development or a family history.  

There are 2 groups of testicular cancer, namely seminoma and non-seminoma cancer.

Testicular Cancer


  • Lump or swelling at the testicle
  • Heavy feeling of the testicle
  • Different in size between the 2 testicles
  • Pain at the testicle
  • Back pain (if the cancer has spread to the spine)

Diagnostic tests

  • Blood tests (to detect your blood, liver and kidney profile as well as tumour markers)
  • Ultrasound of the testicle
  • Chest X-ray or CT or MRI scan (to check for cancer spread)

Staging of the cancer

Stage 1. The cancer is localised and confined to the testicle

Stage 2. The cancer has regional spread involving lymph nodes below the diaphragm

Stage 3. The cancer has spread to other organs like the liver, lung, brain or bones

You may want to consider sperm banking if you intend to have children later.

Treatment of Testicular Cancer

  • Surgery to remove the cancer (radical orchiectomy and removal of any affected lymph nodes)
  • Adjuvant treatment using Chemotherapy and/or Radiotherapy may be required depending on stage and type of cancer cell type

Removal of one testicle should not interfere with your sex life.  In most cases, you should recover back to your normal life within 2-4 weeks after surgery.  After the treatment, you need to have a follow up examination with your doctor and have your blood tests done regularly (every 3-6 months) to check for any recurrences.  You should also perform a self-examination every month too.

How to Perform a Testicular Self-Examination

The best time to perform a self examination is after a shower or bath when the scrotal skin sac is relaxed.

Testicular Self-Examination
  • Look at yourself in front of the mirror to see if there are any changes between the 2 testicles
  • Feel the size and weight of each testicle.  They should be of similar size and shape.
  • Press gently around the testicle to feel for any lumps or unusual swelling
  • Each testicle should feel smooth and oval-shaped without lumps or hard bits

See your doctor if you noticed any unusual changes for a more thorough check up.  Click to find a urologist nearest to your location.  The earlier you get treatment, the better the outcome.  If detected early, 95% of patients will survive beyond 5 years.

Disclaimer. TELEME blog posts contains general information about health conditions and treatments. It is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. The information is not advice and should not be treated as such. 

If you think you may be suffering from any medical condition, you should seek immediate medical attention from your doctor or other professional healthcare providers. You should never delay seeking medical advice, disregard medical advice, or discontinue medical treatment because of information on this website.

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